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This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. 04424631960, 9884350700 #70/1, Market Lane, 7th Street, Kaladipet, Thiruvottiyur, Chennai 600 019. One was giving them Jagirs (land) wherefrom they got their salaries. Akbar’s rule was marked by … Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! Akbar’s day started with his appearance at the Jharokha (balcony) of the palace. His religious policies, however, is the subject of controversies among the historians of the Mughal rule. • Very early he seems to have determined to build a strong, centralized administration, while pursuing an aggressive policy of territorial expansion. Although the successors of Timur were keen to be portrayed as orthodox Islamic rulers they were not prepared to give up the… Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Other important high officials who assisted the king were Mir Atish who supervised the artillery, Daroga-i-Taksal, supervisor of royal mint and Daroga-i-Daak, supervisor of the mail. He was also the head of the intelligence agencies of the empire. He looked after the imperial house-hold. There is also a tentativeness in the manner in which he dealt with different groups. Akbar was an enlightened and successful administrator. Farmers could get loans easily from the state which could be paid in easy annual installments. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. TOS4. He was a true democrat who valued the feelings and ethical values of his people. Durante el reinado de Akbar, el imperio mogol incluía a una mayoría de hindúes y una minoría de musulmanes. A record of all the holdings and liabilities of every farmer was maintained. Akbar raised the structure of Mughul administration. He initiated his conquest of southern India and partially succeeded before he died. Mir Bakshi 4. Akbar divided his empire into fifteen provinces. He looked after the revenues of the state. Privacy Policy3. Abu Faz’l informs us about the abolishment of jiziya in the year 1564, and also the abolishme… Akbar was not only a brave soldier, a successful leader and a great religious reformer but … Both possessed extraordinary qualities of head and heart. Bairam Khan was appointed as Akbar's regent and chief army commander. Vakil. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. In order to preserve the unity of his empire, Akbar adopted programs that won the loyalty of the non-Muslim populations of his realm. Write an essay on the administrative policy of akbar 2 See answers 450957 450957 Answer: Akbar's administrative policies were mentioned in Abul Fazl's book the Akbar Nama, particularly in its third and last volume, the Ain-i Akbari In the book Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces known as Subas, governed by a Subadar. Emperor Akbar's administration system was built on systematic imperial politics… Each province was divided into revenue circles. Central Administration The emperor was assisted by a team of ministers and officials for proper administration of the empire. He also looked after the control of the royal body guards and etiquettes in the court. This covered most of the empire. Akbar gave the Mughal India one official language (Persian), a uniform administrative system and coinage and a common system of weights and measures. Each circle had its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. In the first 20 years of his reign, he made serious departures from the traditional Sunni system of government. He was the Supreme Commander of the army. The empire was divided into Subas. These types of lands were divided into three grades, viz., good, average and bad. Each province was under the charge of Subedar (Governor). The farmers could deposit the land revenue direct to the treasury. (ii) Parauti land was left uncultivated after every crop to regain its productivity, (iii) Chachhar land was left uncultivated for 3 to 4 years. Only Aurangzeb reversed the policy of Akbar. With the help of Raja Todar Mal, Akbar experimented on the land revenue administration, which was completed in 1580. Akbar also continued to maintain excellent diplomatic relationship with the Safavid rulers of Persia, which dated back to his father’s days with Shah Tahmasp I lending his military support to Humayun for recapturing Delhi. All appointments, promotions or dismissals depended on his decision and orders. Akbar (Hindustani:[əkbər]; 14 October 1542 – 27 October 1605), known as Akbar the Great, was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. This revenue system was called zabt. Akbar’s Religious Policy. He was Finance Minister 3. Special consultation with the ministers and nobles were held at the hall of Special Audience (Diwan-i-khas). Panchayats looked after the village administration and also dispensed justice. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. He frankly declared and desired to pursue the policy of the extension of the empire. Your IP: 217.182.216.3 Akbar - Akbar - Administrative reform: Previous Indian governments had been weakened by two disintegrating tendencies characteristic of premodern states—one of armies being split up into the private forces of individual commanders and the other of provincial governors becoming hereditary local rulers. The British who came few decades later found Akbar’s system of administration as their precursor. Akbar organized and strengthened his … To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. The boundaries of the provincial units were more definitely fixed; and a uniform administrative pattern, with minor modifications to suit local conditions, was developed for all parts of the empire. He was assisted by a ‘Diwan’ who looked after the revenue records. ... For this he adopted the following policy: Akbar treated the Rajputs with honour and equality and won their respect and loyalty. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. Akbar was deeply interested in the development and extension of cultivation; therefore, he offered taccavi (loans) to the peasants for seeds, equipment, animals, etc. The Akbar administration was divided into Central and Provincial administration. The land was measured by means of bamboos joined together with iron rings. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. But the points of difference in their outlook and […] Akbar's administrative policies were mentioned in Abul Fazl's book the Akbar Nama, particularly in its third and last volume, the Ain-i Akbari In the book Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces known as Subas, governed by a Subadar. ADMINISTRATION One of the significant contributions of Akbar’s reign was the establishment of an efficient administrative system. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. The second was making cash payment. It goes to the credit of Akbar that the subsequent Mughal rulers followed in principle the administrative policy developed by him. All the arrangements about Jagirs, branding (horses) etc., were devised for the one purpose namely, the … Though Akbar adopted Sher Shah’s administrative system, he did not find it that much beneficial hence he had started his own administrative system. Jahangir and Shah Jahan followed Akbar’s policy in principle. The administrative system of Akbar holds a significant place in Indian History . He established a centralized administration. Akbar made policy to recover the loans in easy installments. He coordinated the work of all other ministers. Dr.Akbar Ali Jaipur, Rajasthan, India One who can contribute to the academic discipline of Public Administration, Public Policy/Governance, Disaster Management and … Land of each farmer was measured into ‘bighas’. (iv) Banjar land was left uncultivated for more than 4 years. Every civil and military official was given a mansab and was called a Mansabdar. Provinces were divided into Sarkars, Sarkars into Parganas and Parganas into villages. For Notes-9098676936Instagram- https://www.instagram.com/currentaffairsupdated/ It was a turning point in the history of Mughals. In the first phase (1556-1574), Akbar seems to be in agreement with the Islamic orthodoxy. All appointments, promotions or dismissals depended on his decision and orders. AKBAR’S RELIGIOUS POLICY: After the reign of Aurangzeb, the Prime Minister, then called ‘Vakil’ became very powerful. Army. from 1570 to 1580. He was the head of the judicial department. Provincial administration was greatly improved under Akbar, and in this respect the Mughal period differs substantially from the sultanate. It was prevalent in the areas where Mughal administrators could survey the land and keep very careful accounts. Akbar was a hard headed man of business, not a sentimental philanthropist, and his whole policy was directed principally to the aquisition of power and riches. He conquered the entire north India and consolidated it, under his administration. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Farmers were given the option to pay the revenue in cash or kind. Three categories of Polaj and Parauti land. Akbar, the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. He carried out a careful survey of crop yields, prices and areas cultivated for a 10-year period i.e. Now the farmers had direct link with the government and they were saved from the excesses and tyrannies of the landlords and the jagirdars. A mansabdar got his salary from the royal treasury. The system on the one hand determined the income of the government and on the other hand enabled the farmers to know clearly how much revenue they had to pay to the government. A large number of people assembled below the balcony, presented their petitions to the emperor, besides having a fortunate glimpse of their emperor. Todar Mai, the revenue minister of Akbar played an important role in devising and introducing a very effective and efficient land revenue and record system. In the Mansabdari system no Jagirs were granted for the purpose of paying salaries. These were: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ahmednagar, Ajmer, Allahabad, Awadh, Bengal, Berar, Bihar, Delhi, Kabul, Khandar, Lahore, Malwa and Multan. Usually he ruled according to Shariat (Islamic Law). Akbar had a Council of Ministers to assist him in the discharge of his administrative responsibilities and state of affairs. Financial Aspects:Todar Mal was Akbar’s revenue minister. Sadar-us-Sadar. Likewise other Ministers became powerful. Qazi looked after justice. Tamil Nadu, India Donate Become a Volunteer. Religión. He married the Rajput princess, the daughter of Raja Bharamal. He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent. He was the third and greatest ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Comparison of Akbar and Aurangzeb Both the Mughal Emperors, Akbar and Aurangzeb won great reputation as ruler over extensive dominions. The land was divided into four categories according to its produce: (i) Polaj land which was regularly cultivated and yielded crops regularly. Content Guidelines 2. STATE AND GOVERNMENT UNDER AKBAR From the fourteenth century, following the disintegration of the Mongol empire, new, liberal thinking arose in West and Central Asia, and was reflected in the state founded by Timur. Akbar’s administrative system can be grouped under two heads: Central Administration Provincial Administration The provincial ministers and officers followed the nomenclature of the central administration and performed similar duties. Akbar was born on 14 October 1542 (the fourth day of Rajab, 949 AH), at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh (in modern day Pakistan), where Emperor Humayun and his recently wedded wife, Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a Persian Shia, were taking refuge. In 1562, the pilgrimage tax on Hindus was abolished. Akbar - Central administration. Akbar was a very judicious ruler who reformed the judicial system according to the Hindu laws. Thus Mansabdari was a system in which the rank of a government official was determined. The Zabti system proved very useful both to the state and the farmers. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Administration of India under the Bahmani Kingdom | Indian History, Salient Features of Maratha Administration under Shivaji, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. Both of them were brave, industrious and energetic and were endowed with military talents of a first order. Bakshi looked after the needs of the army. Akbar’s was an apotheosis of rule in the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Normally state officers did not interfere in the village affairs. Akbar was the centre of all powers—civil, judicial, military and religious. The Subadar carried out … The system was for ten years. Akbar was the centre of all powers—civil, judicial, military and religious. He was the Supreme Commander of the army. Soon after coming to power Akbar defeated Himu, the general of the Afghan forces, in the Second Battle of Panipat. In 1573, just after returning from Gujarat expedition, Akbar paid personal attention to the land revenue system. Babur and Humayun had little time to take any initiative in formulating any administrative policy worth the name. Akbar became the de jure king in 1556 at the age of 13 when his father died. Get complete information on Akbar’s Religious Policy. Following were some of the chief features of the system. But it was not possi… He established a centralized administration. The Kotwal was entrusted with the maintenance of law and order in the main cities. The petitions were promptly attended to on the spot or later in the open hall of public audience (Diwan-i-am). Indian History, Mughal Emperors, Akbar, Administration, Administration of Akbar. Diwan or Wazir. Farmers were issued receipts for all the payments made by them. Akbar was a ruler of intelligence, ambition, and restless curiosity, who exhibited great skill in selecting and controlling his officials. Important features of Akbar’s administration are given below: Akbar’s ideal of Kingship. Akbar engaged himself in wars of conquest all through his life. The Mansab is an Arabic word meaning rank or position or status. He was Prime Minister 2. • According to the Batai or Ghalla- Bakshi system, the producer of the farmers was divided between the government and the fanners in the ratio settled between them. The prominent ministers during the period of Akbar were: 1. All these were new innovations in polity and therefore, the Mughul administration differed from the adminis­tration of the Sultans of Delhi in many respects. This system was called Bamboo Jarib system. Akbar-Administration Administration during the period of Akbar was effecient and based on sound principles of good government. 4. Officials … According to him, “Upon the conduct of a monarch depends the efficiency of any course of action. For the assessment and collection of revenue, a large number of officers like the Amil, Bitikchi, Qanungo, Muqaddam and Patwari were appointed. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. The administrative machinery of the Mughuls, which functioned throughout the Mughul’s rule, was introduced by Akbar and that is why, by ‘Mughul Administration’, we mean Akbar’s Administration. Rajputs served the Mughals for four generations. The Rajput policy of Akbar was notable. Cloudflare Ray ID: 6086dc682b360b57 Many of them rose to the positions of military generals. There were certain basic principles of the religious policy of Akbar. The revenue officials were instructed not to be harsh with the farmers. His gratitude to God should be shown in just government and due recognition of merit.”, image source: aura.edu.in/read/icse/icse-7/history_and_civics/original/Page-066.jpg. There were two methods of making payments to the nobles. There were three systems of land revenue: This system was prevalent in the areas from Lahore to Allahabad and in Malwa and Gujarat. The share of the state was one-third of the produce of the land. Akbar no quiso que su corte estuviera demasiado cerca de la ciudad de Delhi. ... held meeting of his ministers and counselors in Diwan-i- khas where special matters relating to internal and foreign policy were discussed. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. Based on this data, tax was fixed on each crop in cash. Under this system, the average produce of different crops as well as the average price prevailing over the last 10 years was calculated and accordingly land reveue was fixed. 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