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Globalizations 14(2):32-50. She currently serves as a board member for the American Center for Mongolian Studies, and on the editorial board of the Journal of Rural Studies (updated June 2018). Geographers and anthropologists have long investigated the causes and consequences of migration from multiple spatial and temporal scales. During this period, the quota declined from 3,000 families during the early transition period, to approximately 500 in 1999-2000, jumping again to 2,655 by 2002. The Kazakhs of Western Mongolia: Transnational Migration from 1990-2008. In Mongolia, the Kazakhs form one of the largest minorities, representing around four per cent of the total Mongolian population. Fermented mare’s milk (koumiss) and horse flesh were highly esteemed but usually available only to the prosperous. Program to Enhance Scholarly and Creative Activities Award, Vice President for Research, Texas A&M, 2006; “Returning Home: Gender, Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia”, Werner. $5,950. Werner, Cynthia. Although Mongolian is the official language, the Kazakhs use their own language for everyday communication, known as Kazakh or Qazaqsa. Explore similarities and differences. She graduated from Mongolian National University in Linguistics and completed a Masters Degree in Real Estate Land Economics. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Ethnically, they are of Turkic descent, and are the second largest Muslim group of Central Asia. Barcus, Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Grant, Contemporary Mongolia Program; awarded through the University of Pittsburgh; 2004, “Population, Environment, and Geo-Spatial Technologies in Mongolia”, Werner, Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Grant, Contemporary Mongolia Program; awarded through the University of Pittsburgh; 2004 “Women’s Experiences in Mongolia”. Barcus, H.R.  During this period, Mongolia shifted from a communist to a democratic form of governance and from a command to a capitalist economy. She received her M.A. Ed. 2015. About nine percent of the ethnic Mongols come from the Durbet, Dariganga, and other clans. 25 October 2008. The Kazakhs of western Mongolia are one of the world’s last surviving nomadic cultures.  In 1997, the Agency of Migration and Demography was developed as part of the 1997 Law on Migration and Population to assist migrants and to streamline citizenship procedures across different groups of oralman. 2014. “Field Research Among the Kazakhs of Mongolia.” Kazakhstan State University. and Werner, C.A. Celia Emmelhainz is the anthropology and qualitative research librarian at University of California, Berkeley. Bryan, Texas. Bayan-Ulgii is located in the Altai Mountain range and has the highest average elevation in Mongolia. Barcus, H. Invited Guest Lecture.  Quotas overall were quite low during this period, reflecting changes in Kazakhstan’s economy and demographics. Kipchak of Turkic descent, 2. Our study site in Mongolia – a brief geographic overview From the beginning, ethnic Kazakhs had the option of entering Kazakhstan either within or outside of the quota system.  Numbering over 100,000 in the 2000 Census, they comprise the largest ethnic minority in Mongolia, although only 4% of the total population. Minnesota State University. Kazakh nomads have grazed their livestock near the Altai Mountains for hundreds of years. During socialism and even more rapidly since 1989, there has been a gradual transformation of gender roles and gender relations. Springer Publishers: Netherlands. In the 19th century an increasing number of Kazakhs along the borders began to plant some crops. $4,615. Other Invited Presentations and Outreach: 2010 Cynthia Werner, Mobility, Immobility and Return Migration: The Impact  of Transnational Migration on the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. American Anthropologist 117(2): 257-271. 2009 From 2006-2009, we worked to assess the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs. Werner, Cynthia and Celia Emmelhainz. She also studied Linguistics in Russia to improve her language skills in 2008 and attended an English Teacher’s Mentor Program as well as a conference titled “Improvement of Education in Remote Areas-For the Achievement of SDGs” in Tokyo, Japan (2018). Barcus, H. Invited Lecture: “Why do all the Yurts have Satellite Dishes? She now researches scholarly communications, research data management, and librarian professionalization in America and Kazakhstan (updated June 2018).  She is the Past-President of the Central Eurasian Studies Society (2012-15). Politically, the Mongolian and Kazakh steppes were controlled by nomadic tribesmen until the late 17th century when they came under the influence of Chinese and Russian empires respectively.  Thus, changing economic circumstances in Kazakhstan and in Mongolia, combined with policy changes in Kazakhstan and changing perceptions of Mongolian Kazakhs about the benefits of moving to Kazakhstan begin to influence migration decisions during this period. Barcus & Werner. Kazakhs constitute 1. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.  Globalization and Local Livelihood Change in Western Mongolia. Pp. University of Minnesota, 26 March 2010. Hides provided clothing, containers, and thongs; horsehair was braided into rope, while horn was used for ladles and other utensils. “Modern Nomads: Transnational Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora of Western Mongolia. Stipendiary Fellow, Glasscock Center for Humanities Research, Texas A&M, 2008-09; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs” (Anthropology Department fellow). Where do the Mongolian Kazakhs live? Records suggest that in 1905, there were 1370 Kazakh households, increasing to 1,870 households by 1924 (the year Mongolia adopted socialism).  One of these migration flows is comprised of Mongolian Kazakhs migrating to and from Kazakhstan during this period. Association of American Geographers, 103rd  Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA. But Kazakh does not have the difficulties that inflecting languages have with grammatical gender and multiple systems of declension and conjugation. Kazakh culture is distinct here: the nomads are Muslim and they speak Kazakh in everyday life, using Mongolian only when they need to communicate with other tribes or groups. Contemporary Mongolia: Transitions, Development and Social Transformations. Werner, Cynthia and Holly R. Barcus. KAZAKHS - MONGOLIA LESSON 2 - PEOPLE Cult-ED. Cawley, M. Bicalho, A.M.S.M., and Laurens, L. Galway National University Press, pp.143-151. Barcus, Holly.  During the first period (1991-1996), which was characterized by economic crisis in both Mongolia and Kazakhstan, the government of Kazakhstan passed a series of immigration reforms to assist ethnic Kazakhs in returning to Kazakhstan. This has lead to some tension between Kazakhs and Mongolians, and there is a level of discrimination apparent in a minority of people. Barcus, H. Invited Guest Lecture. and Ph.D. in anthropology from Indiana University and has taught at the University of Iowa and Pitzer College. Namara Brede (BA Macalester College, 2010) spent two years working with Dr. Barcus as a research assistant for the Mongolian Kazakh Migration Project. Late Transition Years (2002-2009) 14-17 November 2008. What is Kazakh eagle hunting is like, and what does a competition entail? Her job functions were related to the urban and rural field research, population settlement issues, migration processes and settlement and contemporary urbanization issues of Mongolia at the Institute of Geography-Geoecology. Mongolian is the language of inter-ethnic communication and official language of government and business. After the Mongolian revolution of 1921, a permanent border was established, partitioning Mongolia from China and Russia, and so the Kazakh herdsmen were given an accidental home within Mongolia. and Cynthia Werner.  The Kazakh population is concentrated in the western province of Bayan-Ulgii, a region physically separated from Kazakhstan by a 47-60 km mountainous stretch of Chinese and Russian territory.  While many move with their families, others join extended family relations in Kazakhstan for the duration of their education. BUT, statements like "GK was Kazakh" is totally absurd and wrong. ELLA KELLEHER WRITES — Many are already aware of how the Uyghur people are interned at “reeducation” camps in Xinjiang, the Western province of China. Students, Connect with 2009 2012. “Kazakhstan is my homeland; Mongolia is my fatherland”: Considering the role of place identity and other cultural factors in shaping mobility and immobility decisions in a transnational community” Race, Ethnicity and Place Conference, Puerto Rico, October 2012.  The Kazakh population is predominantly Muslim. San Francisco, California. (updated July 2018). In the past, they were perhaps the most influential of the various Central Asian ethnic groups. Teaching about the Geography and Cultures of Asia is the Middle Grades, a development workshop for teachers, sponsored by the Minnesota Humanities Center. Since the mid-1990s, she has conducted fieldwork in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Mongolia on topics that include transnational migration, international tourism development, bride abduction, the impacts of nuclear testing, gift exchange and bribery, and bazaar trade. Our interviews and surveys indicate that there are many reasons why some Mongolian Kazakhs choose to stay in Mongolia, rather than to migrate to Kazakhstan. March 6, 2009. 2010.  Tbilisi, Georgia. The Kazakhs believe themselves to be descended from a progenitor who had three sons from whom sprang the main divisions of the Kazakhs: the Great, Middle, and Little hordes (ordas) that occupied the eastern, central, and western parts, respectively, of what became the Kazakh khanate and is now Kazakhstan. and C. Werner. These changes in immigration policy and fluctuating quota numbers created a much more complex situation for Kazakhs living abroad who were considering migrating to Kazakhstan. Corrections? Barcus, Holly R. and Cynthia Werner. 2011. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. About 3,200,000 people live in Mongolia. 2008. The unequal burdens of repatriation: A gendered view of the transnational migration of Mongolia’s Kazakh Population. For these reasons, they don't tend to intermingle or intermarry with other ethnic groups in Mongolia. Government efforts were more successful in Kazakhstan, however, in Mongolia the government did not successfully collective the nomads until the 1950s. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. 20 November 2009. The vocabulary of Kazakh has been influenced by Arabic, Persian, Mongolian, and Russian.  Namara is now working toward a master’s degree in geography at the University of British Columbia, where he plans to focus on spatial modeling of anthropogenic changes in grassland ecosystems.  Under socialism in Mongolia (1924-1989), the pastoral economy was collectivized and modern education, health care and public infrastructure including social welfare policies were implemented. Barcus, H. Guest lecture. Wallace Travel and Research Grant. Calculate how many people belong to the Kazakh culture. “Modern Nomads: Transnational Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora of Western Mongolia. While successful middle-aged business owners and herders are relatively satisfied with life in Mongolia, their children consider attending university in Mongolia, especially Ulaanbaatar, or Kazakhstan. Geoforum 56:119-128. Kazakhs from the Kazakh Khanates were among the peoples who moved into the depopulated Dzungaria. Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia.  Estimates suggest that between 50-60,000 Mongolian Kazakhs emigrated from Mongolia to Kazakhstan in the early 1990’s with possibly 10,000-20,000 returning by the early 2000s. 2007. Omissions? Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia.  These political shifts significantly transformed cultural practices and economic structures within the two countries. The Kazakh ethnic group makes up around 90% of the population of Mongolia's Bayan-Olgi province, with around 100,000 Kazakhs spread thinly across the wilderness. The Kazakhs of Mongolia belong to a larger group of people who live primarily in Kazakstan. Population Most inhabitants of Mongolia live in the capital, Ulaanbaatar.  Her undergraduate degree is Geographist and Geographical Teacher from Mongolia National University in 2004. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Transnational Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. February. DOI: 10.1080/09668136.2017.1401042. Most Kazakh Mongolians speak Kazakh and are Muslim; some never learn the Mongolian … 2013. “Place identity and immobility choices among ethnic minorities: Transitioning landscapes in a transnational community” 21st Colloquium of the Consortium for Sustainable Rural Systems, International Geographical Union. This period also witnessed a rapid and important change in the freedom of movement both within Mongolia and across borders. The Kazakhs mainly live in the Altai Mountains. Holly Barcus is a Professor of Geography at Macalester College. Werner, C. and H. R. Barcus. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Trans-National Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. During the study period, local schools taught in either Mongolian or Kazakh (this has since changed).  This is age dependent, however. Barcus, Holly. 2006 Admissions, International Admissions, For High Minorities make up 18.2 per cent of the population and include Barga, Bayad, Buryat, Chantuu, Durbet, Kazakhs and Tsaatan mainly concentrated in the aimags of Bayan-Ölgii, Dornod, Hentiy, Khovd and Uvsnd. An estimated five percent of Mongolian citizens are members of Turkic peoples, primarily Kazakhs and … Minnesota State University. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was strongly shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan. The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities, Practices, and Politics. Mid-Transition Years (1997-2002) For centuries Mongolian, and Local Livelihood Change in Western Mongolia: Examination... Challenges facing new migrants, especially in the 18th century, the Kazakhs are the largest minority Mongolia... 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