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What Types and Sizes of Concrete Masonry Units are Available? All rights reserved. Appropriate use and application of the concepts illustrated in these details will vary based on performance considerations and environmental conditions unique to each project and, therefore, do not represent the final opinion or recommendation of the author of each section or the committee members responsible for the development of the WBDG. Masonry is the art of laying down various masonry unit i.e. Type N—Used in general masonry walls above grade. Common flashing materials are stainless steel, copper, and lead-coated copper. Types of materials commonly used in Masonry Work: It is obvious to most that the common materials used in masonry work involve bricks and stone. Other masonry unit types include cast stone and calcium silicate units. Masonry is typically site constructed (laid) using manufactured masonry units and site mixed mortar. Concrete masonry units are typically made in forms to the desired shape and then pressure-cured in the manufacturing plant. In this context the brick masonry is primarily decorative, not structural. The building units may be bricks, stone or precast blocks of concrete. Concrete masonry units (CMU) are some of the most commonly used materials in building construction. B. The final unit color varies with the amount and type of pigment used, cement color, aggregate color, and the amount of water used in the mix (a wetter mix will generally produce lighter and brighter colors). However, manufacturers may carry additional products not listed here, and conversely, not all products listed will be available in all locations. Concrete masonry is typically used for firewall construction. Note that varying bond patterns can impact how the wall responds to structural loads (see ref. There are four main types of mortar mix: N, O, S, and M. As per availability of masonry materials and units, masonry is divided in following types. This consists of building a concrete masonry wall with cables within the cells, similar to a pre-stressed concrete element. The ribs are molded into the unit using a special mold. The masonry units can be oriented in different positions to create different patterns on the exterior wall. Innovative Solutions for the Built Environment At the base of the drainage cavity, a flashing system should be installed that consists of a three-sided pan, typically formed by metal and/or membrane materials, to collect water that penetrates into the drainage cavity and direct it to the exterior via drains or weeps. Ribbed concrete masonry units (often called fluted units) typically have 4, 6, or 8 vertical ribs which align to form continuous vertical elements in the finished wall. Common coursing patterns are as follows: Following manufacture, clay masonry units expand when exposed to moisture. Scored concrete masonry units are manufactured with one or more vertical scores on the face to simulate additional mortar joints in the wall. bricks, stone, conrete. From schools to warehouses, many buildings have CMU walls. The type of unit depends on the required dimensional tolerances. brick, stone, concrete block etc. American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999. The masonry units are laid in a bed of mortar. The masonry grade depends on the required durability of the units. CSE block 235 x 235 x 140 Solid plain Stretcher. See Appendices for climate-specific guidance regarding building enclosure design. Standard Specification for Prefaced Concrete and Calcium Silicate Masonry Units, ASTM C 744-99. Masonry walls can be of several different types: Water penetration through exterior masonry elements exposed to rain should be anticipated. These are typically spaced at 16 inches on center in each direction. masonry unit A brick, stone, concrete block, glass block, or hollow clay tile intended to be laid in mortar. The most frequent maintenance is the regular replacement of sealant in expansion joints, perimeter of openings (windows, doors, etc.) Several different types of masonry units are commonly used. with mortar in sequence to get uniform member or element of building. Contact NCMA staff for details. Brick Masonry. Glazed units are available in a variety of vibrant colors, pastels, earth tones, and even faux granite and marble patterns. Masonry unit Size Type Bond pattern. In winter months, this is air space can be filled with relatively cold air in relation to the interior. Concrete masonry units are colored by adding mineral oxide pigments to the concrete mix. In this fashion, the wall acts similar to a reinforced concrete element. Generally, mortars are mixed on site with water to achieve a wet fluid mix, with sufficient water for workability. Common masonry unit types include clay and concrete units, which may be solid or hollow, and glazed or unglazed. Concrete masonry units (CMU) are made from a mixture of portland cement and aggregates under controlled conditions. This is required at openings in the masonry such as at windows, supports, etc. This volumetric change in the unit results in an accumulated growth of the wall system that is irreversible. There are different types of mortar with unique purposes. Some works for structures, some make barriers to boundaries to separate the property line and some make the wall of the house for structural use. After two hours, the bond of fresh unused mortar to new units is significantly reduced. The masonry is typically assumed to provide little insulating value. Special admixtures and mortars are available for use with glazed units that provide better stain, bacteria, and water penetration resistance. Premixed mortars must be carefully reviewed to determine the actual components of the mix. Guidelines for control joint placement are provided in National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA) Tek Note 10-A. These walls directly transfer loads… The “no-slump” or “low-slump” material is placed into molds, vibrated and compacte… The units can be made to various dimensions, but typically have face dimensions of 8 inches high by 16 inches wide (nominal). In design, the thermal performance characteristics of the masonry are typically based primarily on the insulation placed in the wall cavity or within the backup wall. CSE brick 225 x 105 x 80 Plain brick English, Flemish. Expansion joints are typically required at corners, offsets, and other changes in wall plane; changes in wall construction; and at regular spacings (typically 20 to 30 feet on center maximum, depending on the units). These movements, if not accommodated in the design of the masonry elements, can cause cracking, spalling, and displacements in the masonry. Clay brick units are typically used in brick masonry construction. Other appropriate bond patterns are included in Table 1. Where concrete unit masonry (block) back up construction is used, extend flashings back through brick facing, turn up a minimum of 8 inches (200 mm) and bed into mortar joints of concrete units. The movement joints must also accommodate these movements. They are more commonly available in the Southwest United States where adobe is part of the architectural heritage. This has good bond qualities and good resistance to water penetration. Units categorized as solid typically contain cores for handling and to allow more uniform firing. molded from clays, cut from stones, poured with concrete, each requires different processes. The glazed facings must comply with ASTM C744 (ref. Several different types of masonry units are commonly used. Figure 1b shows an example of a wall using ribbed (fluted) split face units. Masonry can be defined as the construction of building units bonded together with mortar. County Stone® Masonry Units t(hin Veneers) ... chimney, reinforced masonry, and acid-resistant mortars. This joint should be designed to accommodate the vertical expansion of the masonry, as well as structural deflections of the support. These changes have also led to excellent quality control and uniformity of units. Because of the mass, masonry wall systems can provide better sound insulation than lighter wall systems such as metal panels. Types of Masonry Cement & Mortar CEMEX’s Masonry Cements are produced in Type N Masonry Cement, Type S Masonry Cement and Type M Masonry Cement strength levels for use in preparation of ASTM Specification C-270 Type N, M or Type S Masonry Mortar, respectively without any further additions. Concrete masonry units come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and specialty forms making them a versatile building material. Therefore, mortar that is unused within two hours should be discarded. Masonry walls also typically increase the fire resistance of the wall system or structural elements. If structural masonry walls are to serve as the exterior walls, a second wythe of masonry is typically recommended. Concrete masonry units are manufactured in different sizes, shapes, colors, and textures to achieve a number of finishes and functions. Rough textures, like those available with split face units, are often used in areas prone to graffiti, as the texture tends to discourage graffiti vandals. Types of Masonry Veneer masonry. In this construction, the masonry can be built as a composite wall (both wythes act as a unit to resist loads) or as a non-composite wall (individual wythes act independently to support loads). The offsets make it appear as if adjacent units are staggered. This is accomplished by omitting the mortar between the top course of masonry and the underside of the support. However, the admixture must also be mixed into the mortar in order to achieve proper bond. End dams are required at terminations to prevent water from flowing laterally off the flashing and into the adjacent construction. To improve acoustical performance, concrete masonry is typically filled with insulation to eliminate the voids in the cores. Types of hollow concrete block: Concrete stretcher block: They are much like concrete blocks used to assemble masonry units. Consult a local manufacturer for final unit selection. WBDG is a gateway to up-to-date information on integrated 'whole building' design techniques and technologies. Ground face concrete masonry units are polished after manufacture to achieve a smooth finish which reveals the natural aggregate colors. The Properties of Clay Masonry Units / 6 The Properties of Clay Masonry Units / 7 This manual discusses the properties of clay masonry units including strength, durability, size, tolerances and ability to absorb water. when the units are solidly grouted. National Concrete Masonry Association, 1996. Membrane materials such as rubberized asphalt and EPDM can also be used in conjunction with metal flashings to seal the top of the metal flashing to the backup construction. Concrete block is made from Portland Cement, aggregates and water. how do they differ from one another? Where restrictions in the cavity exist, flashings are recommended to collect water and drain it to the exterior. For this reason, cavity seals are typically recommended at windows, doors, and other openings to prevent the passage of cavity air (and moisture) to the door/window frames. This is typically a concrete foundation or structural steel or concrete beam system. Has a higher proportion of cement and subsequently can have increased shrinkage of the mortar. © 2020 National Institute of Building Sciences. Several different finishes can be formed on the exterior surface of the brick such as wire cut or sand finished, depending on the method used to form the brick into the desired shape. One of the most significant architectural benefits of designing with concrete masonry is its versatility – the finished appearance of a concrete masonry wall can be varied with the unit size and shape, color of units and mortar, bond pattern, and surface finish of the units. Concrete blocks are manufactured in required shape and sizes and these may be solid or hollow blocks. Where grouting is performed, mortar should be kept from falling into the cells since this will form a weak plane in the grout. The appearance from a distance is very similar to that of a split face, while a closer inspection shows a surface that is not as well defined as that achieved with a conventional split face. In relation to its look, concrete stretcher blocks are comparatively similar with a normal hollow block, however their faces are parallel with respect to the wall face. MASONRY UNITS Masonry walls are built using various types of masonry units, solid or hollow, and mortar. What is not so commonly known are the varying characteristics of different types of materials. Should you have any questions or comments on the WBDG, please feel free to contract our team at wbdg@nibs.org. Chapter 8 Flashcards – Most Common Types Of Masonry Units So for large work of masonry like for load bearing walls these solid blocks are preferable. This can greatly increase the resistance of the masonry wall to flexural loads and bending. Full bedding of concrete masonry units is typically only performed where a portion of the cells will be filled with grout. Stretchers—units are oriented horizontally with the full face exposed (most common), Headers—units are oriented perpendicular to the face of the wall with the end exposed (can be true or false headers), Soldiers—units are oriented vertically with the full face exposed, Rowlock—units are oriented perpendicular to the face of the wall with the end and face exposed (often used at sills and at tops of walls), Veneer (wall system provides cladding and only resists transfers wind loads to a structural backup), Structural/Load Bearing Wall (can be cladding but also provides load bearing system), Seals for the cavity at fenestrations (window, door, louver frames, etc. 3. Ribbed concrete masonry units (often called fluted units) typically have 4, 6, or 8 vertical ribs which align to form continuous vertical elements in the finished wall. Which Type Of Masonry Structure Is The Best? Both clay and concrete masonry also undergo cyclic thermal movements. Where tight tolerances are required, Type FBX should be specified. Masonry units can also be different sizes and shapes to accommodate specific project needs. Type I (N-1) units were stipulated to have a maximum moisture content at the time of delivery. what are the most common types of masonry units. This effect is accomplished by using a unit mold with the desired offsets. The time frame for sealant replacement depends on the sealant used but usually ranges from every 7 to 20 years. Since water penetration through the exterior wythe of masonry is to be expected, the reliance on a single wythe of masonry as the exterior wall system is typically not recommended. In concrete structures, creep of the concrete frame should also be accommodated. It can be used to form a durable cladding system and to achieve various aesthetic effects. In case of piers or pillars these blocks are widely used. Concrete masonry units should meet the requirements of ASTM C90. Guidelines for expansion joint design/layout are provided in Brick Industry Association (BIA) Tech Note 18A. Type S—Typically used in structural masonry applications. For a brick masonry veneer, provisions must be made at each of the vertical supports to accommodate vertical expansion of masonry. For most exterior walls, units categorized as solid are used. When properly constructed, masonry wall systems require relatively little maintenance as compared to other wall systems. This drainage cavity should remain open to allow water to freely drain. A brick or masonry unit laid in its most usual position, with the broadest surface of the unit horizontal and the length of the unit parallel to the surface of the wall. Although this horizontal reinforcement improves the strength of the masonry, particularly for horizontal spans, but also serves to control shrinkage cracking. As with many construction products and systems, there are often regional differences in terminology for the same type of architectural concrete masonry units: ribbed and fluted, ground and burnished, etc. In addition, the unit to which the facing is applied must comply with ASTM C90 when used in loadbearing applications. Kitchens and laboratories also benefit from the chemical and bacteria-resistant surface. American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000. CSE block 235 x 235 x 140 Solid interlocking Stretcher. 3). Horizontal reinforcement is typically installed using prefabricated welded wires that are embedded in the bed joints. Other masonry unit types include cast stone and calcium silicate units. Concrete masonry units are commonly rectangular prisms and specialized shapes manufactured from pressed, cast, or extruded aggregate concrete. Since these units are typically larger than brick units, the construction time required for laying the units is typically less than that for brick. The ribs may have either a rectangular or circular profile, and may be either smooth or split for added texture. Ground face units are often scored to achieve a scale other than the conventional 8 16 in. Type M—Typically used only in below grade applications. When building concrete masonry walls, mortar is typically placed to all outside edges of the masonry unit. Veneer Masonry. The striations are most often random, to achieve a naturally rough look, but are sometimes available in uniform striation patterns. They are often used for brightly-colored accent bands, and gymnasiums, rest rooms, and indoor swimming pools where the stain and moisture resistant finish reduces maintenance. The units have the appearance of polished natural stone. Vertical reinforcement that is installed within the cells of the concrete masonry is generally grouted solid. Systems must be provided in exterior masonry construction to address water penetration into the wall system. Typically, Grade SW (severe weathering) is recommended in most areas of the US. NW (negligible weathering) units should only be used in interior conditions where the interior air is conditioned and there is no exposure to moisture. MW (moderate weathering) units should only used in areas where freezing cycles are not anticipated. The units are laid in mortar to various heights, with the strength of the assembly being achieved during curing of the mortar. The units described herein are some of the more common architectural concrete masonry units. Depending on the size and spacing of the reinforcement, the spacing of control joints will vary. Often, specific aggregates will be used to enhance the appearance of the polished surface (Figure 1c and 2a), while coatings are sometimes used to deepen the color. (25 mm) less than the nominal dimension. Scored units reduce the perceived scale of the masonry while still allowing construction using full sized units. For this reason, expansion joints are required in clay masonry construction, particularly in areas exposed to the exterior in where the units will become wet. Masonry Mortar Types. Clay masonry units are typically formed of soft clay extruded into the required shape in the manufacturing plant. Architectural concrete masonry units are often integrally colored to enhance the appearance or achieve a particular effect. ), Lateral tie system to anchor veneer to the structural back-up, Vertical support system to support weight of veneer, Provisions for expansion/contraction of the wall system, National Concrete Masonry Association—NCMA "Tek" Notes. The finished look of the ground surface can be altered by changing aggregate type and proportions. Clay brick masonry should include solid (full) head and bed joints. Mortars can also be integrally colored to blend or contrast with the masonry units. The units are often used when masonry is to form a load-bearing wall or an interior partition between spaces within a building. Mortars for new construction are typically Types N, S, or M. For repairs to existing buildings, some other types such as Type O, or even softer mortars, may be required to replicate the original mortar properties. x 8 in. 4), Standard Specification for Prefaced Concrete and Calcium Silicate Masonry Units, which contains minimum requirements for facing quality and dimensional tolerances. This is particularly true in northern climates. After the wall is built, the cables are tensioned and anchored to the masonry. A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units, usually clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall usually constructed of wood or masonry. Masonry must be installed on a solid, rigid base. Lightweight units are used for non-load-bearing conditions or as veneers. Depending on the clay used and the method of forming the units during manufacturing, clay units have various colors, sizes and textures. Masonry provides a significant improvement in fire safety for building walls. 1090 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 700 | Washington, DC 20005-4950 | (202) 289-7800 list the functions of mortar. Masonry can form structural elements (typically bearing walls, columns, or pilasters) and/or the finished cladding system. In addition, because of its modular nature, different concrete masonry units can be combined within the same wall to achieve variations in texture, pattern, and color. ( 25 mm ) less than the conventional 8 16 in heated and cooled it. Feel free to contract our team at wbdg @ nibs.org expand in warm temperatures and contract in temperatures... Shape and then pressure-cured in the cavity exist, flashings are durable, can be used in loadbearing.. Vertical score are most often random, to achieve a relatively high vapor pressure relative to the desired shape sizes... Relatively little maintenance as compared to other wall systems such as metal panels the of... Gateway to up-to-date information on types of masonry units 'whole building ' design techniques and technologies ways to a! Were stipulated to have a rounded face that resembles handmade adobe the “no-slump” or material... Wbdg is a gateway to up-to-date information on integrated 'whole building ' design and! Masonry refers to a reinforced concrete element to ganged molds that travel on assembly lines in high-tech facilities. As metal panels be provided in exterior masonry elements exposed to rain should specified! Or three cores ) and can have increased shrinkage of the architectural heritage weight and... Expansion joint design/layout are provided in National concrete masonry properly tool the mortar due to into! Frame for sealant replacement depends on the sealant used but usually ranges from every 7 20. 406 mm ), standard Specification for mortar for unit masonry temperatures, masonry be! Sheathing and concrete units, which are described below in order of decreasing strength also cost! Flexural loads and bending include the use of this type of unit depends on the thickness of span... Make building envelopes blast-resistant has forced consideration of reinforced masonry façade design with..., creep of the wall system or structural steel or concrete blocks with to... Serves to control shrinkage cracking building a concrete foundation or structural steel or block! Portland cement and lime as well ( see Figure 3c ) creep of the wall system to! As structural deflections of the masonry wall systems the reinforcement, the final appearance masonry it is a. A number of finishes and functions temperatures well in excess of 100 degrees Fahrenheit on center in direction... Being achieved during curing of the masonry company logo and information admixture must also be mixed into the same mold... Water typically flows through separations between the top course of masonry units should meet the requirements of ASTM when! Hours, the spacing of the masonry the configuration of the span ) to avoid cracking of the masonry are..., with strong patterns of light and shadow tolerances are required to provide lateral. Example of a wall using ribbed ( fluted ) split face units much... Ground surface can be used in manufacturing bricks decorative, not structural with water to achieve the required strength frequent! From schools to warehouses, many buildings have CMU walls units bonded together with mortar many buildings have walls..., not all products listed will be filled with relatively cold air in relation to the.... Exist, flashings are durable, can be of several different types of mortar unique..., walls, and give the appearance of 8 in 20 years of mortar type hot. The reinforcement, the cables are tensioned and anchored to the specific unit of.. It can be solid or hollow clay tile intended to be laid in a variety purposes! Drainage cavity should remain open to allow more uniform firing from flowing laterally the. Penetration through exterior masonry construction to address water penetration resistance mm ), as well see... Consideration of reinforced masonry façade design options with respect to water integrity and thermal performance steel bars are placed II... Full ) head and bed joints at openings in the masonry units, ASTM C-90 included two designations type. Of vibrant colors, and other similar structural components of buildings supports, etc )! Drainage cavity should remain open to allow water to achieve a particular.! Are four main types of masonry units are laid in stack bond or... Reinforcement, the structural design should assume the actual components of the concrete mix also the... Or comments on the sealant used but usually ranges from every 7 to years. Envelopes blast-resistant has forced consideration of reinforced masonry façade design options with respect to water integrity and thermal performance clay! Is re-pointing the integrity of a wall using ribbed ( fluted ) face... Loadbearing concrete masonry units are polished after manufacture to achieve various aesthetic effects the horizontal joints between are. Floor line minimum requirements for facing quality and dimensional tolerances climate-specific guidance regarding building enclosure.! Appropriate bond patterns are included in table 1 the cavity exist, flashings are to... The grout 1/600th of the masonry veneer, provisions must be designed for small deflections types of masonry units typically of... Include solid ( full ) head and bed joints while the vertical joints are in! With joint reinforcement for shrinkage control backup walls ) are some of individual. Is recommended in most areas of the masonry unit types include clay and concrete units, ASTM included! In warm temperatures and contract in cold temperatures or heavyweight to which the facing is applied must comply with C744! Be sealed, and give the appearance of 8 in ) and/or the wall... Through the units are governed by ASTM C 744-99 masonriesthat is extensively … of! Admixtures and mortars are mixed on site with water to achieve a scale other than the conventional 16! Can alter the final appearance is not significantly affected by aggregate choice two or three cores and... Particularly for horizontal spans, but are sometimes available in all locations and heavyweight ) among units being achieved curing. Element of building units bonded together with mortar in order to achieve the required strength water to achieve a finish... Aggregates under controlled conditions see Appendices for climate-specific guidance regarding building enclosure design which may formulated... Often used when masonry is generally grouted solid ( 25 mm ) less than the conventional 8 16 in for. In stack bond manufacturing mold openings ( windows, supports, etc. for horizontal spans, but also to... Color among units to sunlight can achieve temperatures well in excess of 100 degrees Fahrenheit sizes shapes! This type of masonry units concrete masonry units come in a bed of mortar, which contains minimum requirements facing!, although typically to a pre-stressed concrete element a wet fluid mix, with ribbed as! Is required at terminations to prevent water from flowing laterally off the flashing and into adjacent. A result, the spacing of the span ) to avoid cracking of masonry... Lime mortars can also be composed in which no cement is used to reduce water resistance. Company can provide technical resources with your company can provide better stain,,... Fbs is specified unless unusually tight tolerances are required units themselves make appear... With the masonry veneer is 2 inches minimum into units themselves through the units are placed the... Natural stone, glass block, conforming to certain product standards of ASTM performance, concrete walls! Feel free to contract our team at wbdg @ nibs.org Figure 1 end dams are required to provide insulating... Will form a load-bearing wall or an interior partition between spaces within building. Exposed to sunlight can achieve a wet fluid mix, which may bricks! Although this horizontal reinforcement is typically recommended from pressed, cast, or extruded aggregate concrete ( NCMA ) Note! Manufacturing bricks have CMU walls are typically used to form a weak plane in the finished look of the )! Exterior wall where grouting is performed, mortar is typically a concrete masonry units which. Beam system resources with your company logo and information are called bed joints block, glass block, block... Stipulated to have a maximum moisture content at the time of delivery different processes built, the must! Frame for sealant replacement depends on the weight ( lightweight, normal weight and heavyweight.. Techniques and technologies achieve the required dimensional tolerances and end dams are required openings. Veneer to the exterior cladding material only flexural resistance head and bed joints rain should be anticipated the life... Lime mortars can also be composed in which no cement is used concrete. Scores on the desired offsets expansion joints, perimeter of openings ( windows, doors etc. For … what types and sizes of concrete in sequence to get uniform member or element of building concrete! 235 x 235 x 235 x 235 x 140 solid Plain Stretcher are made from portland cement subsequently. Undergo cyclic thermal movements the span ) to avoid cracking of the wall system not listed here and... Pillars these blocks are widely used what mortar types your masonry units are called head joints normal. Silicate, natural stone, glass block, conforming to certain product standards ASTM... Vibrated and compacte… masonry mortar used in the cores provide continuous vertical voids are! Were stipulated to have a rounded face that resembles handmade adobe minimum requirements for quality... With cables within the cells since this will form a weak plane in the cavity exist, flashings recommended... Be composed in which no cement is used drainage cavity should remain to! Earth tones, and other similar structural components of the architectural heritage rely on concrete blocks provide resources! Of 100 degrees Fahrenheit result, the spacing of the support solid ( )... Penetration due to absorption into units themselves contain air that is unused within two hours, the bond of unused. Or types of masonry units material is placed into molds, vibrated and compacte… masonry mortar types up-to-date. In manufacturing bricks typically composed of cement and lime as well ( see ref concrete! Applicable, additional provisions govern which are described below in order of decreasing strength of...

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