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The BT tanks were cavalry tanks: fast-moving and light, designed for maneuver warfare. Japanese forces were overwhelmed, though some put up resistance. At the beginning of the 21st century reruns of the black and white series still manage to attract a large audience. [70] The D-5T was capable of penetrating the Tiger I's upper hull armour at 1,000 metres. The rest are in storage awaits and no longer serve as active duty battle tank. The technological equipment of their machines was better, the combat gear was worse. Other key factors diminishing the initial impact of T-34s on the battlefield were the poor state of leadership, tank tactics, initial lack of radios in tanks, and crew training; these factors were partially consequences of Stalin's purge of the Soviet officer corps in 1937, reducing the army's efficiency and morale. [104], At the same time, the Soviets incrementally upgraded the T-34. The Sixth Army was surrounded, and eventually surrendered in February 1943, a campaign widely regarded as the turning point of the war on the Eastern Front. [64] However by 1942 the Germans had increased the hull armour on the Panzer IV to 80mm which provided good protection at normal combat distances. The floor under the T-34's turret was made up of ammunition stored in small metal boxes, covered by a rubber mat. [83] The earlier transmissions were troublesome, and some tanks went into battle with a spare transmission cabled onto the engine compartment deck.[84]. For the Germans, covering 200 km was nothing, but with T-34s something would have been lost, something would have broken down. By 1943, there were 43 factories producing just two types of tanks – the T-34 and the heavier KV. It also had an 8×6-wheel convertible drive similar to the BT tank's 8×2, which allowed it to run on wheels without caterpillar tracks. The appearance of FAPLA and Cuban tanks prompted South Africa to reinforce UNITA with a single squadron of Eland-90 armoured cars. Tanks in the Soviet Union [50] The armour was heat-treated in order to prevent penetration by armour-piercing shells, but this also caused it to be structurally weak, resulting in strikes by high explosive shells causing spalling. When the German Wehrmacht used captured T-34s, it designated them Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r), where the "r" stood for russisch ("Russian"). In order to prevent recognition mistakes, large-dimension crosses or even swastikas were painted on the tanks, including on top of the turret, in order to prevent strikes from Axis aircraft. Between 150 and 200 of these tanks were built before the end of the war. [145] SWAPO T-34s were never deployed during offensive operations against the South African military, being confined to the role of protecting strategic bases inside northern Angola. ", Regina v. Ministry of Defence Ex Parte Walker, "Scramble for the Congo – Anatomy of an Ugly War", "[ẢNH] "Ông lão" T-34-85 Việt Nam chiến đấu anh dũng trong Chiến tranh biên giới 1979",, International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Tank That Helped Russia Defeat Nazi Germany Has Finally Retired (In Laos), "Russia receives 30 vintage T-34/85 tanks from Laos", "Armée malienne : le difficile inventaire",, "Handbook of Major Foreign Weapons Systems Exported to the Third World: 1981–86", "Briefing – The War in Angola: Forces and Organisation", Tanki T34-76 väljatõmbamine Kurtna järvest (WWII Trophy tank), "Russian Tank Recovered from the Lake After 50 Years Been There – English Russia", "Musée des blindés de Saumur : Toute l'histoire du blindé", The Soviet high command: a military-political history, 1918–1941, Full panorama of external and internal T34/85, Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r): Soviet T-34 in German Service, U.S. WWII Newsmap, "Russian Armored Vehicles", The T-34 in WWII: the Legend vs. the Performance, List of armoured fighting vehicles of World War II, Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II,, Military vehicles introduced in 1940–1944, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles containing Russian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles needing additional references from July 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2020, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 26.5 tonnes (29.2 short tons; 26.1 long tons), 18.9 hp (14 kW) / tonne (T-34) 15.6 hp (11.6 KW) / tonne (T-34-85), This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 15:18. Many T-34-85 tanks first saw action in April 1961 during the Bay of Pigs Invasion with an unknown number destroyed or knocked out during the battle. [113] The improved T-34-85 became the standard Soviet medium tank, with an uninterrupted production run until the end of the war. Nicknamed pirozhok (stuffed bun) because of its characteristic shape, it was heavy and hard to open. [123] After October 1950, KPA armour was rarely encountered. [94] Anti-tank gunners began aiming at tank tracks, or vulnerable margins on the turret ring and gun mantlet, rather than the bow and turret armour. [48] The examinations, performed at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, revealed problems with overall armour build quality, especially of the plate joins and welds, as well as the use of soft steel combined with shallow surface tempering. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). The T-34 was and remains a legend. [144] As part of this effort, SWAPO diplomatic representatives in Europe approached the German Democratic Republic with a request for ten T-34 tanks, which were delivered. [187], In 2000, a T-34 Model 1943 was recovered that had spent 56 years at the bottom of a bog in Estonia. [27] Koshkin died of pneumonia (exacerbated by the drive from Kharkov to Moscow) at the end of that month, and the T-34's drivetrain developer, Alexander Morozov, was appointed Chief Designer. Its evolutionary development led directly to the T-54/55 series of tanks, built until 1981 and still operational today. The Finnish tanks were captured directly from the Soviets or purchased from Germany's captured stocks. With substantial drivetrain changes, a new turret, and 100 mm gun, it became the T-54, starting production in 1947. [71] When firing on the frontal armour of the Panther at an angle of 30 degrees sidewards, the T-34-85 could not penetrate its turret at 500 m (550 yd). Disponoval bezprecedentní kombinací palebné síly, mobility, ochrany a robustnosti. The two-man turret crew arrangement required the commander to aim and fire the gun, an arrangement common to most Soviet tanks of the day. [82], The T-34 gearbox had four forward and one reverse gear, replaced by a five-speed box on the last of the 1943 model of the T-34. Some still may serve in a second-line capacity in a number of Third World militaries, while others may find use in a civilian capacity, primarily in film-making. The resulting new tank, the T-34-85, was seen as a compromise between advocates for the T-43 and others who wanted to continue to build as many 76 mm-armed T-34s as possible without interruption. [59], In 1942 the German Panzer IVs were refitted with the Kwk 40 due to the inadequate anti tank performance of previous German tank designs against the T-34. It was evolved from the T29 Heavy Tank and T30 Heavy Tank in 1945, sporting a 120 mm (4.72 in) modified anti-aircraft gun. [5], In 1945, encounters with heavy German tanks and tank destroyers such as the Tiger II and Jagdtiger lead to a new project to counter these new threats. [25] Koshkin's team completed two prototype T-34s in January 1940. [100] Besides the poor state of older tanks, the new T-34s and KVs suffered from initial mechanical and design problems, particularly with regard to clutches and transmissions. Due to low anti-tank performance, the T-34 was upgraded to the T-34-85 model. With the T-43 canceled, the Soviet command made the decision to retool the factories to produce an improved version of the T-34. [191] The Mandela Way T-34 Tank, a privately owned T-34-85 named after the street in which it is sited (near Bermondsey, London), is frequently repainted by artists and graffitists. An evaluation of the tank was conducted by the USA which found that the sloped armour of the T-34 was desirable for deflecting shells. It was evolved from the T29 Heavy Tank and T30 Heavy Tank in 1945, sporting a 120 mm (4.72 in) modified anti-aircraft gun. The T34 was designed in parallel with the similar T29 and T30 heavy tank projects. [126], One of the last modern conflicts which saw the extensive combat deployment of the T-34-85 was the Angolan Civil War. The turret drive also suffered from poor reliability. Mark Axworthy, London: Arms and Armour, 1995, Honnigfort, Bernhard. The Syrian Army also received T-34-85s from the Soviet Union and they took part in the many artillery duels with Israeli tanks in November 1964 and in the Six-Day War of 1967. The upgunned Panzer IV posed a serious threat to the T-34, being able to penetrate frontally at a range of 1,200 m (3,900 ft) at any angle. Dimensions, road speed and engine horsepower of the various models did not vary significantly, except for the T-43, which was slower than the T-34. The tank was painted pink by artist David Černý in 1991. [52][53] According to an examination of damaged T-34 tanks in several repair workshops in August to September 1942, collected by the People's Commissariat for Tank Industry in January 1943, 54.3% of all T-34 losses were caused by the German long-barreled 50 mm KwK 39 gun. [45] It was the most-produced tank of the Second World War, and the second most-produced tank of all time, after its successor, the T-54/55 series. The vehicle was equipped with the 120 mm T53 gun and the new Continental AV-1790 engine. [3] Both were tested in field trials at Kubinka in 1939, with the heavier A-32 proving to be as mobile as the A-20. [citation needed], On 12 January 1945, a column of Tiger IIs among other tanks from 424th Heavy Panzer Battalion were involved in a short-range engagement with T-34 85 tanks near the village of Lisow. [133][134] Most of these tanks were in poor condition at the beginning of the conflict and some were soon rendered unserviceable, likely through inadequate maintenance and lack of spares. Its production method was continuously refined and rationalized to meet the needs of the Eastern Front, making the T-34 quicker and cheaper to produce. The use of poorly machined, low quality steel side friction clutches and the T-34's outdated and poorly manufactured transmission meant frequent mechanical failure occurred and that they "create an inhuman harshness for the driver". Please subscribe to my channel. [177], German military intelligence in World War II referred to the two main production families as T-34/76 and T-34/85, with subvariants receiving letter designations such as T-34/76A — this nomenclature has been widely used in the West, especially in popular literature. 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